on all orders above $300.00

FREE Pills!


for free with every order



Less than in your
local pharmacy

Search by letter:


Enter coupon: (if you have one)

Advagraf (Tacrolimus)

Advagraf is an immunosuppressant drug used to prevent and treat organ rejection in children who have had liver transplants. It is used for long-term immunosuppression. Studies suggest that children generally tolerate Advagraf well; they are less likely to suffer from hypertension or need steroid or insulin treatments. Graft loss from acute or chronic rejection is extremely rare under Advagraf. The use of this potent medication should only be managed by a transplant surgeon familiar with it.

Other names for this medication:
Tacrolimus, Advagraf, Envarsus, Prograf,

Similar Products:
Sitran, Azadose, Lopin, Aprazole, Neodol, Zalat, Triconex, Amosine, Depramine, Supragesic, Celemax, Bicalox, Diclax, Clavinex, Copegus, Dicloflame, Bestafen, Aldep, Nobactam, Duracan, Spirono, Alopron, Volcan, Hasitec, Carbagen, Sanprima, Lovequin, Alzam,

This medication may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

advagraf vs astagraf

The patients were reinterviewed three months later and were classified as adherent or nonadherent on the basis of self-reported estimates of the number and frequency of missed doses. Under simplifying assumptions that, as in the VIGOR study, the risk of rofecoxib or naproxen therapy can be described by a Cox model with exponentially distributed event times, it is possible to calculate the daily risk of cardio- and cerebrovascular events in patients treated with these drugs. Factors that must be included into a decision to perform incidental surgery should be the age and general health of the patient, prognosis, setting of the original operation (emergency vs. Lowgrade stenosis was defined as involving no effacement of the subarachnoid space, intermediate-grade as involving effacement of this space, and high-grade as involving effacement of this space, together with compressive myelopathy. Incidence of inherited enzyme activity variants in feral mouse populations.

advagraf and pregnancy

This is the first reported PCR of the Brucella genome where a single pair of primers will discriminate between B. The intake of saturated fat has generally decreased in the first group of countries, and has markedly increased in the second group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) The differences in support between the different alignments were much larger than between the phylogenetic optimality criteria applied (maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood). BQ-123 was given directly into the left circumflex coronary artery at 0.03 or 10 x min-1 starting 15 min before coronary occlusion and continuing throughout occlusion and reperfusion. Birth difficulties in sheep and goats--evaluation of patient outcome from seven lambing periods in an obstetrical clinic

advagraf usa

In order to address this question, we raised antibodies against a tumorous blood cell line and identified an antigenic determinant that marks the surface of prohemocytes and also circulating plasmatocytes in larvae. S1 mapping analysis and mRNA sequencing show that the sequences are absent from the beta-tubulin transcripts.

advagraf 1mg price

Relationship between thyroid hormone transport and neutral amino acid transport in JAR human choriocarcinoma cells. Psychiatric disorders are characterized by diverse clinical manifestations that include deficits in cognition, perception, mood and arousal. Pretreatment with phenytoin produced a significant increase in maternal lethality following caffeine administration but no co-teratogenic effect. The point mutations of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) are associated with autosomal dominant human skeletal disorders such as thanatophoric dysplasia (TD).

advagraf overdose

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli producing Shiga toxins 1 and/or 2 have become major foodborne pathogens. Prospectively, 6216 patients were studied for a mean of 107 months. In the case of receptors activated by GABA, the observations are consistent with the idea that the action is the result of PB stabilizing one of the open states.

advagraf side effects

These results demonstrate that the Swi2/Snf2 bromodomain is important for the remodeling as well as for the octamer-transfer activity of the complex on H3-acetylated nucleosomes. A randomized, controlled comparison of anterior and posterior periocular injection of antibiotic in the prevention of postoperative endophthalmitis. Immunohistochemical examination of cyclin D1 expression may provide important prognostic information in univariate and multivariate analysis and may be necessary for determining therapeutic strategies for esophageal cancer. The efficacy and safety of linezolid as treatment for Staphylococcus aureus infections in compassionate use patients who are intolerant of, or who have failed to respond to, vancomycin.

advagraf side effects

Protein profile, ubiquinone and fatty acid content of the outer membrane were in accordance with those described for other Legionella pneumophila serogroups. Morulae appeared smaller in size with fewer cells than comparable controls. Preparation and characterization of anti-morphine vaccine antibody Expansion of the EU now looks set to take place but the major efforts to develop common policies continue to be stymied by national differences, no more so than in on the issue of genetically modified (GM) crops, as Nigel Williams reports. Subjects performed maximal and submaximal tasks on a KIN-COM isokinetic dynamometer.

advagraf price

Congenital nonprogressive hemangiomas are histologically and immunophenotypically distinct from classically presenting hemangiomas of infancy, unlikely to be related to the latter in pathogenesis. LESIONS OF THE HIS-TAWARA SYSTEM IN SEVERE ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK

advagraf generics

The author reports having used this technique in hundreds of cases without the loss of any skin graft. The enzyme belongs to the serine proteinase family, and its activity vs. As the granulomas enlarged, by 12 weeks, arylsulfatases B and Bv activities further increased but the arylsulfatase A value remained the same as that of 8 weeks. The relationship between self-concept of academic ability and academic achievement correlated more strongly than the relationship between global self-concept and academic achievement.

advagraf uses

Scotland (latitude 55-60 degrees N) has a total area of 77 837 km2 (30 405 square miles) and includes four urban centres each with a population of over 100,000. Cloning and characterization of the meningococcal polyphosphate kinase gene: production of polyphosphate synthesis mutants.

advagraf vs prograf

Additionally, it appears that regional control in patients treated with primary radiation alone or with chemoradiation in case of a total nodal volume of more than 3.0 cm(3) results in an unacceptable high risk on regional recurrence. Fibre and probiotics could lower the incidence of bacterial infections following major abdominal surgery in comparison to conventional nutrition with or without SBD. However, the prostaglandin responsible has not been conclusively determined.

tacrolimus side effects pdf creator

  • chronopharmacokinetics of ciclosporin and tacrolimus ointment
  • tacrolimus side effects neuropathy
  • prograf tacrolimus capsules sandoz
  • protopic tacrolimus ointment 0.1 reviews of london
  • tacrolimus capsules usp monograph testing
  • tacrolimus side effects skin laser
  • tacrolimus cream side effects
  • tacrolimus dosage in dogs
  • cyclosporine vs tacrolimus nephrotoxicity vancomycin
  • advagraf dose
  • protopic tacrolimus ointment 0.03
  • tacrolimus ophthalmic solution compounded semi
  • side effects of tacrolimus eye drops
  • tacrolimus cns toxicity from dental anesthesia
  • topical tacrolimus cost
  • lcp tacrolimus ophthalmic
  • advagraf fda
  • tacrolimus side effects topical anesthetic
  • tacrolimus capsules spc
  • warfarin tacrolimus interaction
  • tacrolimus side effects hyperkalemia diet
  • tacrolimus liquid dosing system
  • tacrolimus vs cyclosporine for dry eye in dogs
  • tacrolimus ingredients
  • advagraf and pregnancy
  • protopic 0.1 ointment tacrolimus monohydrate vs hyclate
  • tacrolimus side effects pdf creator
  • tacrolimus 0.1 ointment price
  • tacrolimus level adjustment buy
  • tacrolimus ophthalmic solution dog
  • teachers association canada tacrolimus
  • tacrolimus prograf 0.5 mg
  • tacrolimus levels in renal transplant medications
  • advagraf usa
  • advagraf cost
  • advagraf vs astagraf
  • lupus erythematosus panniculitis treated with tacrolimus ointment
  • tacrolimus ointment for vitiligo
  • advagraf 1mg price
  • tacrolimus eye drops for dogs at walmart
  • tacrolimus 1 mg cap
  • difference between pimecrolimus and tacrolimus ophthalmic
  • circinate balanitis tacrolimus ophthalmic
  • tacrolimus 0 03 ointment buy stocks
  • tacrolimus capsule package insert
  • tacrolimus sirolimus everolimus fda
  • tacrolimus generic substitution laws
  • tacrolimus toxicity seizures while sleeping
  • advagraf generics
  • tacrolimus side effects medication
  • tacrolimus cost uk universities
  • advagraf generic
  • umstellung tacrolimus sirolimus prescribing
  • tacrolimus side effects pdf
  • tacrolimus suspension preparation
  • tacrolimus ointment 0 03 w www
  • compounding tacrolimus ointment prices
  • tacrolimus extemporaneously compounded oral liquid
  • gwenhael tacrolimus ointment
  • advagraf overdose
  • protopic 0.1 ointment tacrolimus monohydrate calcium
  • compounding tacrolimus ointment uses
  • tacrolimus 1 mg tabletas de apple
  • generic tacrolimus eye drops
  • advagraf prescribing information
  • tacrolimus mouthwash gvhd diet
  • tacrolimus capsule size 0
  • advagraf side effects
  • advagraf package insert
  • tacrolimus capsules usp monographs
  • protopic 0.03 ointment tacrolimus monohydrate definition
  • tacrolimus renal toxicity drugs
  • advagraf fda approval
  • advagraf manufacturer
  • cyclosporine tacrolimus mechanism action
  • tacrolimus ointment 0.1% cost
  • advagraf vs prograf
  • tacrolimus ointment 0.1 benefits
  • tacrolimus cream uk
  • tacrolimus side effects renal transplant rejection
  • tacrolimus mechanism of action ppt file
  • tacrolimus level gvhd symptoms
  • tacrolimus and diarrhea
  • tacrolimus suspension
  • mechanism of action of tacrolimus in vitiligo makeup
  • protopic 0.03 ointment tacrolimus monohydrate powder
  • tacrolimus 1 mg precio
  • tacrolimus iv dosing for hydromorphone
  • advagraf price
  • alcohol-induced rash caused by topical tacrolimus precautions
  • tacrolimus ointment 0 1 w weather
  • cyclosporine vs tacrolimus nephrotoxicity meaning
  • tacrolimus ointment dogs dry eye
  • tacrolimus manufacturers
  • tacrolimus dose conversion
  • tacrolimus eye drops for children
  • compounding tacrolimus ointment vitiligo
  • advagraf uses
  • pimecrolimus ve tacrolimus cost
  • tacrolimus side effects emedicine pneumonia

advagraf 1mg price

The earliest mobilization was obtained in patients treated with long-stem prostheses supplemented with internal fixation, and this method of treatment is advocated. The behaviour of this unique case illustrates the disputed malignancy of carcinomas arising within encapsulated pleomorphic adenomas.

tacrolimus cost uk universities

Using a previously developed experimental system, in vitro inflation tests were performed on twelve segments of arteries, in static conditions. Ym1 is a neutrophil granule protein that crystallizes in p47phox-deficient mice. The operational control studies of smear positive tuberculosis cases with short-course chemotherapy under the full-course management and supervision Four men and 7 women, 36 to 78 years of age, receiving outpatient hemodialysis in the northwestern United States, volunteered to participate in this study.

side effects of tacrolimus eye drops

A favourable outcome occurs in most other reported cases, in contrast with spinal cord compression from metastases. In conducting data analysis, the investigator must be aware of the potential problems related to the size of the data base, the unit of analysis, and the sampling strategy--particularly if sampling involved stratification or clustering. Used in tandem with the existing glycoprotein-specific ELISA that discriminate between PRV-vaccinated and field strain-infected swine populations, the described technique may help to clarify whether vaccine-derived recombinants are generated under natural conditions and after normal vaccine usage. These data indicate that antioxidant agents should be used in combination with inhibitors of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (hypolipidemic preparations) for the therapy of patients with coronary heart disease. The specific activity for DCNB measured in the CSMA strain was only 1/5 of the activities of the Cornell-R strain in the 100,000 g supernatant, but was about the same after affinity chromatography.

tacrolimus renal toxicity drugs

In this phase, the levels of intracellular pyruvate and acetate became minimum, ATP became high and intracellular pH at its lowest level. (2001) described a new circuit in the regulation of neuronal activity by leptin with an interaction between these two pathways. Study 1 yielded no differences in detection of infractions as a function of experience, however, referees of high experience used significantly more sources of information than the group with low experience across all categories of information.

advagraf vs astagraf

Cis and trans regulatory elements required for regulation of the CHO1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Metabolic fate of alanine in cuticle hypodermis muscle system of the fowl nematode Ascaridia galli. Complete and incomplete pyloric gland metaplasia of human gallbladder. Like myosin-light-chain kinase and heavy caldesmon, both calponin and SM 22 were more or less exclusively found in smooth muscle cells, during embryonic development and in the adult.

tacrolimus side effects medication

Seven days later, shear stress-induced thrombosis was evaluated by cyclic flow variation (CFV), reflecting recurrent cycles of thrombus formation and dislodgment. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators of mitogenic signaling, we evaluated the role of ROS in the COX-2 induced growth arrest in MC.

tacrolimus side effects neuropathy

Eight cases of aortic graft infection and aortoenteric fistulae in association with HO have been recognized. In the second step, a central composite design was used to optimize carbon and nitrogen sources in the medium. This step involves formation of a nucleoprotein complex in which the Mu ends synapse and undergo two concerted single-strand cleavages. This compound may have useful applications as an intracellular chemiluminescent probe for the presence of myeloperoxidase.

tacrolimus side effects hyperkalemia diet

Education of clinical biochemists within Australia occurs primarily after the individual has attained a primary degree (Science or Applied Science) and is employed within a clinical laboratory, public or private. Reproducible patterns of blood pressure responses to the dopamine infusion made possible a subdivision into those who were blood pressure responders (who generated dopamine sulfate with delay) and non responders (who generated dopamine sulfate immediately).

tacrolimus eye drops for children

Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis was employed to determine the concentrations of six elements in the plasma and erythrocytes of 18 cancer subjects (15 males and 3 females) with neoplastic disorders and in 70 controls (35 males and 35 females). At 15 minutes after injury, animals with deep contusions also had a slight decrease in density without Evans blue staining, interpreted as cytotoxic edema, in some gyri neighboring the contusion. Evaluation included hemodynamics, lactate dehydrogenase of myocardium and myocardial infarct size. We suggest that the zinc finger region of GATA-1, and related proteins, is multifunctional and mediates not only DNA binding but also important protein-protein interactions. Functioning ovarian tumors with peripheral steroid cell proliferation: a report of twenty-four cases.

alcohol-induced rash caused by topical tacrolimus precautions

Fibrinolytic complexes of low-molecular heparin and acetylsalicylic acid Type I lipid photo-oxidation by the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug suprofen: a possible key to its photosensitivity.

cyclosporine tacrolimus mechanism action

On 99mTc-sestamibi images, normally functioning grafts showed adequate perfusion on the angiogram and good uptake followed by clearance on static images. MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH REPEATED RAPID WEIGHT REDUCTION IN RATS.

tacrolimus side effects renal transplant rejection

While repeated bone marrow biopsy showed no signs of leishmaniasis, high antibody titers against leishmania antigen led to the diagnosis of kala-azar. Data for the Colored Progressive Matrices were collected for a sample of 259 8- to 12-yr.-old children in Lithuania in 1999.

advagraf dose

GROWTH RESPONSES OF TOMATO TO NUTRIENT IONS ADSORBED ON A PUMICE SUBSTRATE. Pulmonary functions in tropical eosinophilia before and after treatment with diethylcarbamazine. Here, as an alternative to subliminal priming, we introduce a sensitive behavioral method to detect nonconscious semantic processing of words. Furthermore, once the gene is amplified, it remains at the same level of amplification regardless of the concentration of drug in which given cells have been selected. This pro-angiogenic activity depended primarily on fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and/or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) whose secretion was increased.

advagraf manufacturer

Mechanism of anesthetic action: oxygen pathway perturbation hypothesis. During unfolding, the hydrogen bonds and salt bridges break, destabilizing the secondary and tertiary structure. The experiments on clinical marrow images and mammograms have successfully demonstrated its superiority of the proposed algorithm over the existing active contour models which deal with image gradient information. The flap was raised with considerable ease and its vascular supply was reliable.

generic tacrolimus eye drops

The presence of subretinal hemorrhage in Best disease may be related to mild, incidental trauma. Moreover, in some cases the fumarate anion is detected, which results from the chemical surface transformation of the aspartate. Surveying the more extensive data base, the authors previously reported a much larger number of inpatient episodes (about 3 million).

tacrolimus ingredients

The following results were obtained: Interstitial fibrosis was seen at the acute stage along with an increase in fibroblasts, macrophages and lymphocytes. Immunomodulation of murine cytomegalovirus-induced myocarditis in mice treated with lipopolysaccharide and tumor necrosis factor. If residual tumor or persistent overproduction of pituitary hormones is detected postoperatively, radiotherapy is applied. The DNA homology data indicate that phenotypic information alone, including antigenic serotypic data, is not always adequate for species designation among the ureaplasmas and that comparative analyses of the genome provide invaluable data for establishing new species. In colony hybridization experiments, the 550 bp fragment hybridizes specifically to pneumococcal isolates in a pattern consistent with the hypothesis that the fragment is a portion of the pspA structural gene that is different from the portions coding for the antigenic determinants detected by mAbs Xi64 or Xi126.

advagraf vs prograf

The prevention of the excitatory action of 8-OH-DPAT on NE neuron firing by kynurenate is also consistent with this neurocircuitry. The masking power of various generic, dry mineral earth, and flocking colorants dispersed in medical-grade silicone elastomer was investigated. A comparison of thromboembolic prophylaxis in gynecologic oncology patients. By phase-contrast microscopic observations, none of these cancer cells including those from the lung adenocarcinomas, formed obvious cell-cell contacts.

tacrolimus ointment dogs dry eye

Hypogenitalism, especially micropenis, is a constant feature in males, while females show only hypoplasia of clitoris and labia minora and are functionally normal. Responses were scored against those of a reference group of general practitioners. A study was made of the genetic effects of iodine radioactive isotopes in male germ cells of (CBA X C57Bl)F1 hybrid mice.

tacrolimus suspension

Does ethylene mediate root growth inhibition by indole-3-acetic Acid? Client reactions to genetic counseling: self-reports of influence. Most samples have been obtained from tumour biopsies or from established tumour-derived cell lines. Characterization of an in vitro rhesus macaque blood-brain barrier.

advagraf vs astagraf

However, we found no significant differences between the two groups with regard to other parameters of activation of the fibrinolytic and coagulation systems and to activation of platelets. At prophase, the nuclear membrane is indented to a funnel shape due to microtubules which radiate from the poles.

tacrolimus cream uk

Triple therapy with SQV-SGC plus ddC and d4T is a reasonably well tolerated regimen that markedly and rapidly reduces viral load with immunological improvement. Results of kidney transplants using allografts with multiple versus single arteries are similar. Two ADPKD-related genes have been isolated: PKD1, located on chromosome 16p13.3, and PKD2, located on 4q21-22.

 Show Hide 
tacrolimus capsule package insert 2011-02-01

We found that, in addition to blood pressure and body size, sodium excretion in response to provocative maneuvers, glomerular filtration rate, the renin-angiotensin system, and the sympathetic nervous system are influenced by genetic variance. The difficulties are compounded by existing incomplete classification citalopram too high dose prednisone schemes, which do not satisfactorily predict the final clinical results of a given injury or treatment.

protopic 0.1 ointment tacrolimus monohydrate vs hyclate 2015-03-30

Lectin cytochemistry of the human autopsy cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and old cerebral infarction was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections augmentin 875 mg medication using 15 lectins. For this application, the imaged object is in the near-field region limit of the imaging array. Overexpression of multidrug transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) may play a significant role in pharmacoresistance, by preventing antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) from reaching their targets in the brain.

tacrolimus capsules spc 2010-07-29

It alprazolam extended release 3m graphics was found that the course of the clinical interview was determined by three thinking processes. Antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in inflammatory rheumatic diseases: immunodiagnostic and immunopathogenetic aspects THE USE OF THE GEVAERT NUC-307 NUCLEAR EMULSION FOR RADIOAUTOGRAPHY AT THE ELECTRON MICROSCOPE LEVEL. By now, involvement of TGF-beta in the development of pathologic matrix production is most clear in experimental glomerular diseases. All students were invited to complete a questionnaire at the end of every module to assess their perceptions of interaction.

tacrolimus ingredients 2016-05-10

The experimental results are compared with recent theoretical predictions for the phase behavior of anesthetic-lipid systems, and the biological relevance of this study is discussed. The epitril tablets on sale IR niacin is preferred for the management of hypercholesterolemia but can also cause significant adverse effects and should be given only to patients who can be carefully monitored by experienced health professionals. Medical education from a social democratic viewpoint at the end of the 19th century Endobiliary brush biopsy: Intra- and interobserver variation in cytological evaluation of brushings from bile duct strictures. The complete nucleotide sequence of the influenza C/California/78 virus RNA 4 was obtained by using cloned cDNA derived from the RNA segment.

advagraf 1mg price 2010-08-21

Retinoic acid (RA) exerts its pleiotropic effects on cell growth side effects of meloxicam medicine and differentiation through the activation of a family of transcription factors-the RA receptors (RARs). There is a clear correlation between the reduction in kcat/Km for substrates with uncharged P1 side chains and the nature of the residue at position 178.

tacrolimus sirolimus everolimus fda 2011-06-18

Additional evidence suggested that the pathway responsible for the exercise pressor reflex located in the surviving spinal cord is most likely bilateral. Vocal behavior in the dyadic interactions of preadolescent and generic finasteride vs proscar finasteride early adolescent friends and acquaintances. At surgery 1.8 months after the MR examination, 4 cavities were found to be empty and 1 cavity contained only a minor amount of fluid. Effect of insulin on von Willebrand factor release in normal and diabetic subjects: in vivo and in vitro studies. Lower extremity hemorrhage in spinal cord injured patients receiving therapeutic anticoagulation.

advagraf overdose 2011-10-24

We now describe the effects in thymic epithelial supernatants (TESL) of soluble factors produced by TECL (the large epithelial cell) on thymocytes costimulated with mitogen and compare their effects to those derived from TECs. Human CG also greatly increased the size of a subpopulation tatanol codeine 500mg 30 mg opana of myometrial smooth muscle cells without affecting their chromosomal ploidy. Mycobacterium ulcerans, the etiological agent of Buruli ulcers, is an environmental pathogen. Although AF-6 levels initially decreased they returned to normal.

tacrolimus ointment 0 1 w weather 2017-02-19

Analysis of the results of ultrasonic tomography and endoscopic retrograde 200 mg acyclovir tablets side cholangiopancreatography in the diagnosis of cancer of the pancreas It is suggested that in studies on runting only the intravenous route be used and that heated cells serve as a control. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of a novel topical anesthetic peel preparation for induction of local anesthesia prior to full-face cutaneous laser resurfacing. Concurrent deficiencies in zinc and vitamin A intake often coexist, and the interaction between zinc deficiency and vitamin A metabolism may confound results from epidemiologic or intervention studies. Alfentanil effect kinetics may be used as a noninvasive surrogate for conventional pharmacokinetics.

cyclosporine vs tacrolimus nephrotoxicity meaning 2013-01-05

fasciculata DNA polymerase A enzymes to some of these inhibitors and utilization of poly(rA) X oligo(dT)11 showed these enzymes to be markedly different from mammalian DNA polymerase alpha. In all cases, the primary displacement was at least etan pro line 23 for sale equal to the clavicular thickness.

tacrolimus and diarrhea 2014-03-15

The uncovered stent appears to safely bridge branch arteries as well as significantly reduce the angiographic size trevilor gute erfahrungen of the aneurysm and may be useful in the elective therapy of AAAs. In young prehypertensive rats, the difference between SHR and WKY cardiac zinc levels was also very significant. All participants had previously been exposed to the clinical use of the method. Gel shift assays and footprinting experiments indicate that HMBP binding overlaps two of these methylated Sp1 sites.

advagraf package insert 2014-11-04

In the mice treated with tranilast, up-regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 was observed in the allografts, accompanied by becilan pyridoxine injection a reduced number of proliferating cells. We use comparative sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene to reveal the existence of a widespread, cryptic species of spitting cobra from southeast Asia.